Economies grew, millions were lifted from poverty, and social safety nets widened to support a growing share of vulnerable populations. When the United States and Europe experienced sharp downturns during the international financial crisis of 2008 and 2009, some governments in the region were able to increase spending and keep their own economies from slipping into … [Read more...] about Because Waiting for the Next Boom is Not Enough
The immediate effects of floods are well known and frequently devastating. Lives are lost and homes and possessions destroyed or damaged by water, while crops can be ruined or washed away, affecting livestock as well as people. Workers and firms alike lose irreplaceable days of productivity, and they can incur crippling expenses in the absence of adequate insurance—a … [Read more...] about The Land May Be Dry, but the Flood Goes On
Exposure to extremes in weather during childhood and adulthood has increasingly well-known effects. Since those extremes are becoming more frequent, researchers and policymakers are working on ways to ameliorate their effects. But what about the effects of weather extremes on human gestation and infancy? Although the womb provides a degree of protection from the outside world, … [Read more...] about A Climate for Infant Health
When people think about climate change, what often comes to mind are rising temperatures. Indeed, for much of the world’s population higher temperatures most dramatically manifest themselves in an increasing frequency of heat waves responsible for hundreds and sometimes thousands of fatalities. Prominent examples include heat waves in Chicago in 1995, France and other European … [Read more...] about Too Warm for Growth?
Policymakers may have big plans like extending a highway or starting a new social assistance program. Then again, they may have more modest plans such as meeting payrolls or maintaining existing infrastructure and levels of service. Realizing any of those plans requires a dependable stream of revenue, usually including taxes on individuals’ income and property. In an ideal … [Read more...] about Raising Tax Revenues on a Tight Budget: A Field Experiment in the Pampas