Throughout the history of humanity, technological advances have driven different radical transformations in the material and social conditions of production. We are currently witnessing a new phase in the transformation of the global economy, the Fourth Industrial Revolution, which centers on the digitization of the manufacturing sector and is driven by surprising increases in … [Read more...] about Industry 4.0—Manufacturing the Future
It is high time that trade integration processes in Latin America achieve convergence between the region’s many bilateral agreements in order to extend the benefits that these bring while extending the originating status of a given good so that it can circulate freely. … [Read more...] about Strategies and mechanisms to promote the convergence of trade agreements in Latin America
Caribbean islands face significant competitive disadvantages in trade because of a variety of factors — including the size and nature of their economies and their geographic location, which necessitates a reliance on maritime and air transport for most of their import and export needs, with 90 percent of goods being transported by sea. At the same time, maritime transport and … [Read more...] about Short-sea shipping: A solution to Caribbean logistics challenges?
When world trade consisted mostly of final goods or inputs used only in goods for domestic final demand, the relationship between trade agreements and trade flows was relatively simple: sign an agreement with another country and the trade flows between the two nations would most likely increase, end of story. With the emergence of global value chains, however, the story is not … [Read more...] about Why fragmented integration hampers fragmented international production
Over the last 30 years, in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), preferential trade agreements (PTAs) were the instrument of choice for moving toward more integrated markets. Although PTAs were successful in helping countries to move beyond the limitations of earlier, more inward-looking integration initiatives, their proliferation led to a regulatory architecture that has not … [Read more...] about Latin American integration: an insurance policy against uncertainty on global market access